Integ Metals // Aluminium Information

Aluminium

Aluminium and its alloys truly are the workhorse of the engineering industry. With a high strength to weight ratio, high corrosion resistance and an unparalleled arsenal of joining, shaping and forming methods, Aluminium is as at home orbiting the Earth at 20,000Km as a component of a GPS satellite as it is at -10,000m as a material used in submarines surveying the Mariana Trench. Read on for useful information pertaining to its production, forms, uses and critical data...

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Grade 1xxx
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Grade 5xxx
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Grade 9xxx
History
Production
Joining
Machining

Wrought Aluminium

Wrought Aluminium is the name given to Aluminium and its Alloys when it has been pre-formed into shapes during the foundry process. Wrought Aluminium is sub-divided into nine series to indicate their respective alloying elements, simply stated as 1XXX-9XXX with the 'Xs' denoting the series' sub-categorisation, related to alloying elements.

1XXX- Aluminium ≥99%

2XXX- Copper

3XXX- Manganese

4XXX- Silicon

5XXX- Magnesium

6XXX- Magnesium and Silicon

7XXX- Zinc

8XXX- Other Elements

9XXX- Reserved for future use.

Grades 1, 3 4, 5 and 8 are only able to be treated by precipitation hardening and the rest, 2, 6, 7 and 8 in the Al-Li-Cu-Mg range are treated by work hardening.

Wrought Aluminium Products are divided into two main areas-

Mill Products

Consisting of flat rolled products (sheet, plate and foil), rod, bar and wire, tubular products and shapes.

Engineered products

This is the term given to forgings, which are usually designed and made for specific engineering tasks, not off-the-shelf as mill products are.

System for Heat Treatable (Precipitation Hardenable) Alloys- Applies to Grades 1, 3, 5 and 8

 

T1 - Cooled from an elevated-temperature shaping process and naturally aged to a substantially stable condition

 

T2 - Cooled from an elevated-temperature shaping process, cold worked and naturally aged to a substantially stable condition

 

T3 - Solution heat treated, cold worked and naturally aged to a substantially stable condition

 

T4 - Solution heat treated and naturally aged to a substantially stable condition

 

T5 - Cooled from an elevated-temperature shaping process and artificially aged

 

T6 - Solution heat treated and artificially aged

 

T7 - Solution heat treated and overaged or stabilised

 

Basic Temper Designations For Heat Treatable Alloys

 

F As fabricated

O Annealed

T Solution heat treated (Used if properties stay the same at room temperature for weeks after heat treating

System for Cold Workable (Work Hardenable) Alloys Applies to Grades 2, 6, 7 and 8

 

H1 - Strain hardened only

 

H2 - Strain hardened and partially annealed

 

H3 - Strain hardened and stabilised

 

H4 - Strain Hardened and Lacquered or Painted

 

The above temper designations are further subdivided with the addition of an extra digit to denote the minimum degree of tensile strength after strain hardening. Of these designations, Hx8 is reserved for the hardest, whilst numbers 1-7, between the 0 and Hx8 designations, indicate their incrementally increasing tensile strength as the numbers ascend.

Basic Temper Designations For Cold Workable Alloys

 

F As fabricated

O Annealed

H Strain hardened (Wrought products only)

W Solution heat treated (Used if properties change at room temperature immediately following heat treatment)

T Solution heat treated (Used if properties stay the same at room temperature for weeks after heat treating

 

Grade 1xxx Alloys

Composition

Grade 1xxx Alloys are termed as commercially pure, or controlled unalloyed, as 90-99.9% of their composition is Aluminium. 

Common Forms

1xxx Series Alloys are commonly available in

  • Sheets and Plates

  • Drawn and extruded tubes and pipes 

  • Structural profiles

  • Extruded wire, rod and bars

  • Rolled and cold finished wires, rods and bars

  • rivets forgings

  • foil. 

(Not all alloys or tempers available in all shapes)

Characteristics

  • Good formability

  • High corrosion and weathering resistance

  • Low strength

  • Ductile- easy to draw

Machinability

Grade 1xxx Alloys are termed as commercially pure, or controlled unalloyed, as more than 99% of their composition is Aluminium. 

Weldability

Grade 1xxx Alloys are termed as commercially pure, or controlled unalloyed, as more than 99% of their composition is Aluminium. 

Uses

Due to their high purity, Grade 1xxx Series Alloys are resistant to chemical exposure and the effects of weathering. As such, they are used extensively in applications requiring high purity, such as in the machinery used for chemical processing. 

Grade 2xxx Alloys

Composition

Grade 1xxx Alloys are termed as commercially pure, or controlled unalloyed, as 90-99.9% of their composition is Aluminium. 

Common Forms

1xxx Series Alloys are commonly available in

  • Sheets and Plates

  • Drawn and extruded tubes and pipes 

  • Structural profiles

  • Extruded wire, rod and bars

  • Rolled and cold finished wires, rods and bars

  • rivets forgings

  • foil. 

(Not all alloys or tempers available in all shapes)

Uses

Grade 1xxx Alloys are termed as commercially pure, or controlled unalloyed, as more than 99% of their composition is Aluminium. 

Machinability

Grade 1xxx Alloys are termed as commercially pure, or controlled unalloyed, as more than 99% of their composition is Aluminium. 

Characteristics

Weldability

Grade 1xxx Alloys are termed as commercially pure, or controlled unalloyed, as more than 99% of their composition is Aluminium. 

Grade 3xxx Alloys

Composition

Grade 1xxx Alloys are termed as commercially pure, or controlled unalloyed, as 90-99.9% of their composition is Aluminium. 

Common Forms

1xxx Series Alloys are commonly available in

  • Sheets and Plates

  • Drawn and extruded tubes and pipes 

  • Structural profiles

  • Extruded wire, rod and bars

  • Rolled and cold finished wires, rods and bars

  • rivets forgings

  • foil. 

(Not all alloys or tempers available in all shapes)

Uses

Grade 1xxx Alloys are termed as commercially pure, or controlled unalloyed, as more than 99% of their composition is Aluminium. 

Machinability

Grade 1xxx Alloys are termed as commercially pure, or controlled unalloyed, as more than 99% of their composition is Aluminium. 

Characteristics

Weldability

Grade 1xxx Alloys are termed as commercially pure, or controlled unalloyed, as more than 99% of their composition is Aluminium. 

 
 

Grade 4xxx Alloys

Composition

Grade 1xxx Alloys are termed as commercially pure, or controlled unalloyed, as 90-99.9% of their composition is Aluminium. 

Common Forms

1xxx Series Alloys are commonly available in

  • Sheets and Plates

  • Drawn and extruded tubes and pipes 

  • Structural profiles

  • Extruded wire, rod and bars

  • Rolled and cold finished wires, rods and bars

  • rivets forgings

  • foil. 

(Not all alloys or tempers available in all shapes)

Uses

Grade 1xxx Alloys are termed as commercially pure, or controlled unalloyed, as more than 99% of their composition is Aluminium. 

Machinability

Grade 1xxx Alloys are termed as commercially pure, or controlled unalloyed, as more than 99% of their composition is Aluminium. 

Characteristics

Weldability

Grade 1xxx Alloys are termed as commercially pure, or controlled unalloyed, as more than 99% of their composition is Aluminium. 

 

Grade 5xxx Alloys

Composition

Grade 1xxx Alloys are termed as commercially pure, or controlled unalloyed, as 90-99.9% of their composition is Aluminium. 

Characteristics

Weldability

Grade 1xxx Alloys are termed as commercially pure, or controlled unalloyed, as more than 99% of their composition is Aluminium. 

Common Forms

1xxx Series Alloys are commonly available in

  • Sheets and Plates

  • Drawn and extruded tubes and pipes 

  • Structural profiles

  • Extruded wire, rod and bars

  • Rolled and cold finished wires, rods and bars

  • rivets forgings

  • foil. 

(Not all alloys or tempers available in all shapes)

Uses

Grade 1xxx Alloys are termed as commercially pure, or controlled unalloyed, as more than 99% of their composition is Aluminium. 

Machinability

Grade 1xxx Alloys are termed as commercially pure, or controlled unalloyed, as more than 99% of their composition is Aluminium. 

Grade 6xxx Alloys

Composition

Grade 1xxx Alloys are termed as commercially pure, or controlled unalloyed, as 90-99.9% of their composition is Aluminium. 

Common Forms

1xxx Series Alloys are commonly available in

  • Sheets and Plates

  • Drawn and extruded tubes and pipes 

  • Structural profiles

  • Extruded wire, rod and bars

  • Rolled and cold finished wires, rods and bars

  • rivets forgings

  • foil. 

(Not all alloys or tempers available in all shapes)

Uses

Grade 1xxx Alloys are termed as commercially pure, or controlled unalloyed, as more than 99% of their composition is Aluminium. 

Machinability

Grade 1xxx Alloys are termed as commercially pure, or controlled unalloyed, as more than 99% of their composition is Aluminium. 

Characteristics

Weldability

Grade 1xxx Alloys are termed as commercially pure, or controlled unalloyed, as more than 99% of their composition is Aluminium. 

 
 

Grade 7xxx Alloys

Composition

Grade 1xxx Alloys are termed as commercially pure, or controlled unalloyed, as 90-99.9% of their composition is Aluminium. 

Common Forms

1xxx Series Alloys are commonly available in

  • Sheets and Plates

  • Drawn and extruded tubes and pipes 

  • Structural profiles

  • Extruded wire, rod and bars

  • Rolled and cold finished wires, rods and bars

  • rivets forgings

  • foil. 

(Not all alloys or tempers available in all shapes)

Uses

Grade 1xxx Alloys are termed as commercially pure, or controlled unalloyed, as more than 99% of their composition is Aluminium. 

Machinability

Grade 1xxx Alloys are termed as commercially pure, or controlled unalloyed, as more than 99% of their composition is Aluminium. 

Characteristics

Weldability

Grade 1xxx Alloys are termed as commercially pure, or controlled unalloyed, as more than 99% of their composition is Aluminium. 

 

Grade 8xxx Alloys

Composition

Grade 1xxx Alloys are termed as commercially pure, or controlled unalloyed, as 90-99.9% of their composition is Aluminium. 

Common Forms

1xxx Series Alloys are commonly available in

  • Sheets and Plates

  • Drawn and extruded tubes and pipes 

  • Structural profiles

  • Extruded wire, rod and bars

  • Rolled and cold finished wires, rods and bars

  • rivets forgings

  • foil. 

(Not all alloys or tempers available in all shapes)

Uses

Grade 1xxx Alloys are termed as commercially pure, or controlled unalloyed, as more than 99% of their composition is Aluminium. 

Machinability

Grade 1xxx Alloys are termed as commercially pure, or controlled unalloyed, as more than 99% of their composition is Aluminium. 

Characteristics

Weldability

Grade 1xxx Alloys are termed as commercially pure, or controlled unalloyed, as more than 99% of their composition is Aluminium. 

 

Grade 9xxx Alloys

Composition

Grade 1xxx Alloys are termed as commercially pure, or controlled unalloyed, as 90-99.9% of their composition is Aluminium. 

Common Forms

1xxx Series Alloys are commonly available in

  • Sheets and Plates

  • Drawn and extruded tubes and pipes 

  • Structural profiles

  • Extruded wire, rod and bars

  • Rolled and cold finished wires, rods and bars

  • rivets forgings

  • foil. 

(Not all alloys or tempers available in all shapes)

Uses

Grade 1xxx Alloys are termed as commercially pure, or controlled unalloyed, as more than 99% of their composition is Aluminium. 

Machinability

Grade 1xxx Alloys are termed as commercially pure, or controlled unalloyed, as more than 99% of their composition is Aluminium. 

Characteristics

Weldability

Grade 1xxx Alloys are termed as commercially pure, or controlled unalloyed, as more than 99% of their composition is Aluminium. 

 

History & Production

Since its first successful extraction as an element in 1824 by the Danish chemist Hans-Christian Oersted, Aluminium has evolved from a base metal to a space-age material. Due to its extreme chemical reactivity, Aluminium doesn't occur as an unbonded element naturally, usually found in ground-level level bauxite rocks along with 270 other elements, there are two important processes which it must pass through to become an extracted element in its own right: The Bayer Process to chemically separate Alumina from its naturally bonded elements and the Hall-Heroult electrolytic process for producing Aluminium from its oxide.

Step One

Bauxite ore is exctracted from the earth's crust, containing Aluminium and 270 other elements

Step Two

Via the 

 

Joining Aluminium

Machining Aluminium

 
 

Cast Aluminium

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